1. Read the following words and expressions (Прочтите следующие слова и выражения)
crucial, encourage, disagreement, dweller, emergence, executive, issue, noteworthy, permanent, prominent, reasonable, reduce, struggle, supporter, unreasonable, Whig Party.
2.Try to read the tongue– twisters as fast as you can (Прочтите скороговорки настолько быстро, насколько это возможно)
a) A sailor went to sea.
To see what he could see.
And all he could see,
Was sea, sea, sea.
b) I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won’t wish the wish you wish to wish.
3. Read and translate the text (Прочитайте и переведите текст)
The Emergence of Political Parties: Jefferson and Hamilton
The role of political parties is crucial to understanding the way the American government works. It is noteworthy, however, that the Constitution makes no mention of political parties. It was the debate between two prominent political statesmen Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton as to the best political policy for the American government to follow that led the emergence of political parties. The struggle between the two men has affected American policies ever since.
Hamilton, a self-made man, distrusted the people and called democracy a “poison”. He thought that people are naturally selfish, unreasonable, and violent. Jefferson, born to wealth and social position, thought that people are naturally decent and reasonable. Hamilton believed in a highly centralized government as a means of keeping order. He thought that the people must be given some share in choosing their rules but government should be as far removed from them as possible. This, in his opinion, meant making the federal government stronger and reducing the powers of the states. It also meant a strong executive department, strong courts and a standing army or an army maintained on a permanent basis, even in times of peace.
Hamilton thought that the country should encourage manufacturing and the growth of cities. Jefferson thought that the country should continue to defend on agriculture. Like many of his day, Jefferson felt that farmers were a better sort than city dwellers.
Both men were deeply convinced of their opposing political beliefs. Jefferson believed that Hamilton’s ideas would turn the United States inlet dictatorship. Hamilton thought Jefferson’s ideas would end in mob rule.
Political parties were born from the disagreement of Hamilton and Jefferson. The supporters of Hamilton’s ideas called themselves Federalists. The supporters of Jefferson ideas called themselves Republicans. Later Jeffersonian Republicans came to call themselves Democrats (1828) while the political views of the Federalists came to be centered in the Whig Party (1834-1855) which opposed the Democrats. Thus gradually evolved, what is sometimes called the “two party system” into the Republican and Democratic Parties of today.